- Girardello P. (2013). Rinforzo di volte in muratura con materiali compositi innovativi. PhD Thesis, Università degli studi di Brescia; Università degli Studi di Padova, tutor Prof.ssa F. da Porto, co-tutor Prof. C. Modena
Masonry buildings are a significant part of our cultural heritage as well as one of the most widespread structural system in Italy and in Europe. The decay condition, static problems and seismic risk of the italian territory, are becoming more relevant, and
makes often necessary structural interventions to preserve the integrity of historic heritage.
Focusing on the vaulted structures, in recent years new materials and strengthening techniques, to improve the structural condition and preserve these structures from further damage, have been developed. However, these new materials and techniques are sometimes applied without any prior study to verify their applicability and effectiveness. In this contest, the present research analyzes the reinforcement of masonry barrel vaults and the local behavior of composite materials with inorganic matrix. Therefore, the first part of the work presents a preliminary considerations and a methodology for evaluation the local behavior of composites applied to masonry, using pull-off and single-lap shear test, using different types of fibers and inorganic matrix.
The second part involves a series of static tests, monotonic and cyclic, on masonry barrel vaults in real scale, strengthened at the extrados through various types of composite materials or extrados stiffening diaphragms (’frenelli’) with composite materials. The execution of these tests allowed to assess the different behavior of the various intervention techniques adopted, also the increase of strength and the variation of the dynamic response, assessed through dynamic identification (output-only technique). Finally, numerical modelling of the mechanical behavior of unreinforced and reinforced vaults, subjected to static was developed. This analysis has thus allowed to investigate further the distribution of stresses and modes of failure of vaults elements subjected to strengthening with composite materials.
- Casarin F. (2006). Structural assessment and seismic vulnerability analysis of a complex historical building. PhD Thesis, Università degli Studi di Trento; Università degli Studi di Padova, tutor Prof. C. Modena, co-tutor. Prof. Pere Roca i Fabregat
The definition of “structural safety” of a historical masonry structure (both cultural heritage monumental buildings and minor structures) is still a concept which is somewhat difficult to interpret. While for new masonry structures it is possible to have useful indications toward the correct interpretation of their structural behaviour, and then have adequate tools to properly evaluate their dynamic response, as the analysis turns to “historical” constructions such task becomes harder and harder. Furthermore, the needs of preservation of the historical, cultural and architectural essence of the building in many cases contrast with the needs of providing the “adequate” capacity to its structure, in order to withstand the design seismic loads. Growing interest on the study of buildings belonging to the cultural heritage follows the relatively recent applicability of new Italian seismic code (Ordinance of the Prime Minister 3274/2003 and its following modifications).
The “Guidelines for the application of the seismic code to the cultural heritage buildings” are at the present moment under preparation. It is implicitly considered in the code that such particular class of buildings, characterized by an enormous typological and constructive variety, could only partly fulfil the code requirements, and some adjustment has to be done.
The work carried out is related to the definition of a knowledge and safety assessment “path”, concerning cultural heritage masonry buildings, especially religious buildings with a monumental character inserted in the historical centre of the cities. A complex religious building, the cathedral of Reggio Emilia, was studied in order to evaluate its structural behaviour thus defining its seismic vulnerability, by using different investigation and analysis methodologies. The expected result is the validation of the proposed analysis method through the application to the selected case study. The extent of the study can be inserted in the wider framework of the safety assessment of a class of building presenting similar peculiarities.
- da Porto F. (2005). In-plane cyclic behaviour of thin joint masonry walls. PhD Thesis, Università degli Studi di Trento; Università degli Studi di Padova, tutor Prof. C. Modena, co-tutor Dr. M.R. Valluzzi
New technologies for the construction of reinforced and unreinforced masonry buildings, based on the production of new blocks, are being employed and developed and are recognized by the modern generation of codes. In particular, a technique based on the use of clay blocks with small dimensional tolerance in unit height, i.e. machine flat bed faces, for the use with special mortars for thin layer joints, has been introduced only recently in most of the European countries. This construction technique allows simple and fast assemblage and enhances the acoustic and thermal insulation of the masonry walls.
As a consequence of the introduction of this system for the construction of masonry buildings also in earthquake prone countries, it is necessary to assess its behaviour under seismic actions. In this framework, an extensive experimental program was carried out at the University of Padua, in order to characterize the mechanical behaviour of the new construction system, also under combined in-plane vertical and horizontal cyclic loading. The system was studied in comparison with other typologies of masonry walls currently adopted in the practice, characterized by different configurations of head and bed joints.
The test set-up for the execution of shear compression tests was created onpurpose for the research, after studying the most appropriate test configurations to reproduce the behaviour of shear walls. All the data collected from the experimental activity were used to assess some analytical models available for the prediction of the ultimate capacity of masonry walls under in-plane uniaxial compression and shear compression loading. A new formulation for the evaluation of the tensile strength of masonry was proposed and assessed against experimental data. The cyclic behaviour of the specimens was also modelled and this allowed carrying out non-linear dynamic analysis for the evaluation of the reduction of the elastic response of the masonry walls due to their hysteretic behaviour. The results obtained can be used as data-base and input for standardization purposes.
- Valluzzi M.R. (2000). Comportamento meccanico di murature storiche consolidate con materiali e tecniche a base di calce. PhD Thesis, Università di Trieste; Università degli Studi di Padova, tutor Prof. C. Modena
The present work concerns the study of the mechanical behavior of historical masonry structures (both stone and brick ones) strengthened by intervention techniques based on the use of hydrated-lime products, that is of materials having better compatibility (chemical, physical and mechanical) with the existent ones.
The most common techniques are taken into account, and the data available in literature (mechanical behavior detected by experimental studies) have been collected and rearranged. The more appropriate techniques related to the two masonry typologies have been detected in connection with their specific structural problems, as follows:
· discontinuity among the whytes and lacking of the internal core, for multi-layer stone masonry;
· the hazard of sudden collapse of brick masonry structures subjected to high compression stresses (bell towers, city walls, etc.).
Beside some traditional techniques and interventions of recent increasing interest (injection and repointing for stone masonry, bed joints reinforcement for the brick ones), the research exhibits innovative interventions (as the use of transversal ties and the application of combined techniques -injections-repointing-ties- in stone masonry walls). The efficiency of such techniques are validated by laboratory compression tests executed on typical masonry walls, in situ applications (real study cases), and by non-invasive investigation techniques (flat jacks, sonic waves and tomography, inspections), carried out both in situ and in laboratory.
As regards the injection technique, an experimental campaign performed on different grouts has allowed to define test procedures for the rheologycal characterization of the mixtures, both at intrinsic level (fluidity and stability) and in connection with the support to inject (injectability tests carried out on cylinders). In particular, the influence of different additives and several particle-size supports have been studied.
Finally, significant results have been obtained by the application of simplified analytical models, calibrated on the basis of the experimental results, able to predict the strength of injected walls by taking into account the strength of the materials and of the structural components of the masonry.
- Casarin F., Beccaro E., Fattoretto M., Girardello P. (2013). Structural Health Monitoring del patrimonio storico-artistico. La Sala dei Battuti del Duomo di Conegliano. Archeomatica, ISSN 2037-2485, pp. 24-28
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is increasingly being considered in the field of conservation of cultural heritage buildings, as an activity of primary importance in the definition of the actual structural response of historical buildings or monuments, allowing to express judgments about their health conditions, e.g. worsening or stability of the observed damage pattern…).
The paper shows the results obtained by the Structural Health Monitoring system installed in the Hall of Flagellants in the Conegliano Cathedral (TV), which presents a serious crack pattern.
The system, which develops an innovative contactless technology relying on an optical video camera, designed in order to avoid any damage to the frescoed surface, has ensured and continues to ensure an effective control of the structure, validating the proposed technology.
- Modena C., da Porto F., Bettiol G., Giaretton M. (2012). Salvaguardia degli edifici di interesse storico-artistico nell’emergenza post-sisma. Progettazione Sismica, IUSS Press, n. 3, pp. 211-221, ISSN 1973-7432
The seismic events that have affected immediately a wide area in the north of Bologna, between Ferrara, Mantova, Reggio Emilia, affecting Mantua and Rovigo, have had an impact, in terms of ground motion, much lower than that caused by the earthquake of Abruzzo, with consequences much more selective. Structural damages occurred, with also serious and extensive collapses, almost exclusively on two building systems, evidently the most vulnerable: historic/monument buildings and industrial buildings.
Safeguard activities of the architectural heritage of cultural interest took place with the extensive use of previous experience, but according to a new and different model of emergency management, headed directly by MiBAC. There have been established: The Unit of Crisis- National Coordination (UCCN-MiBAC) for the overall coordination, and the Unit of Crisis – Regional Coordination (UCCR-MiBAC), headed by the Regional Directors of the local authorities for the coordination and execution of field activities.
The damage survey was performed following the same operating procedures used in L’Aquila earthquake (6th of April, 2009), by means of systematic compilation of specific sheet forms for churches and palaces prepared by Civil Protection (Gruppo di Lavoro Beni Culturali – GLABEC). The compiler teams are composed by architects of the Superintendent, officers of the Fire Brigade and, where necessary, a technician with specific expertise on the cultural heritage typology of the building.
In the same forms the necessary information are provided for the safety interventions, subsequently planned and executed in most cases by the Fire Department involved simultaneously, new compared to the Abruzzo case and obviously of extra-ordinary socio-economic importance, of the reduction of losses and of the damage production in the affected areas by the earthquake.
A particular critical effect of the safeguarding activities of the historicalstructures, related with the damage selectivity, mentioned above, was the fact that: although the majority of the buildings used as residence and/or of the normal commercial activities of a town center resulted immediately useable, the center of a district was declared unfit due to indirect danger caused by the presence of a bell tower and /or a church heavily damaged.
Given, therefore, an overall structural damage lower than that in Abruzzo, the post-earthquake emergency management did not result less complex and demanding and the damage selectivity was a complicating factor, and not simplified, especially regarding the protection activity of the architectural heritage.
- Bracchi S., da Porto F., Galasco A., Graziotti F., Liberatore D., Liberatore L., Magenes G., Mandirola M., Manzini C.F., Masiani R., Morandi P., Palmieri M., Penna A., Rosti A., Rota M., Sorrentino L., Tondelli M. (2013). Comportamento degli edifici in muratura nella sequenza sismica del 2012 in Emilia. Progettazione Sismica, IUSS Press, n. 3, pp. 141-161, ISSN 1973-7432
- The seismic sequence begun in May 2012 affected a region in which masonry buildings constitute a large percentage of the existing building stock and the construction of new masonry buildings is still common practice. The aim of this paper is to describe the seismic response of the most common structural configurations in the area for urban and rural buildings, both for residential, office and agricultural use. Most existing masonry buildingsin the area are realised with clay bricks. The seismic behaviour of thistype of buildings is particularly interesting as past seismic events in Italy have mainly affected areas in which stone masonry was predominant. With few exceptions ofstructural deficiencies which were responsible for the increased vulnerability ofsome buildings, in general the seismic response of these structuresto repeated shaking with a PGA of the order of 0.25-0.30 g was quite satisfactory, despite most of them were only designed for vertical loads. Indeed, seismic design rules became mandatory for this region only after 2003. Buildings of limited height, realised with load-bearing modern masonry, which were built after this year following seismic criteria and with adequate construction details in many cases did not present significant structural damage. The examples presented in this paper show that new masonry buildings, designed according to seismic criteria, generally performed much better than older structures.
- Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., Modena C. (2002). Il consolidamento delle murature in pietra: verifiche del comportamento strutturale e valutazioni di efficacia. L’Edilizia, De Lettera Ed., vol. XVI, n. 3, May-June 2002, pp. 36-45, ISSN: 1593-3970
- Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., Modena C. (2002). Il consolidamento delle murature in pietra: verifiche del comportamento strutturale e valutazioni di efficacia. L’Edilizia, De Lettera Ed., vol. XVI, n. 3, May-June 2002, pp. 36-45, ISSN: 1593-3970
- Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., Modena C. (2002). Miscele da iniezione: problemi e proposte. L’Edilizia, De Lettera Ed., vol. XVI, n. 2 Feb./March/Apr. 2002, pp. 72-77, ISSN: 1593-3970
- Silva B., Dalla Benetta M., da Porto F., Valluzzi M.R. (2013). Compression and sonic tests for the assessment of the effectiveness of grout injection on 3-leaf stone masonry walls. International Journal of Architectural Heritage: Conservation, Analysis, and Restoration. Taylor & Francis Publishers
- The results of an experimental campaign on multi-leaf stone masonry panels (scales 1:1 and 2:3), in original conditions and after consolidation with natural hydraulic lime grout injection are presented. The specimens were constructed with one of the most common structural techniques, widely employed on minor historical buildings throughout Europe. Experimental research included a series of destructive (DT) monotonic and cyclic uni-axial compression tests on three-leaf and single-leaf stone masonry panels. Mechanical tests were complemented by non-destructive tests (NDT) on the walls before and after strengthening. Both NDT and DT allowed assessment of the effectiveness of grout injection as a consolidation technique and gave better insights on its influence on the behavior of this type of masonry. An attempt to establish a relation between sonic velocity and mechanical parameters for this specific type of masonry was also carried out.
- Lignola G.P., da Porto F., Prota A., Manfredi G. (2013). Evaluation of RC arch bridges and main parameters in performance assessment. ACI Special Publications, American Concrete Institute (submitted)
- Penna A., Morandi P., Rota M., Manzini C.F., da Porto F., Magenes G. (2013). Performance of masonry buildings during the Emilia 2012 earthquake. Bullettin of Earthquake Engineering
- The earthquake sequence started on May 20 th 2012 in Emilia (Italy) affected a region where masonry constructions represent a large part of the existing building stock and the construction of new modern masonry buildings is a common practice. The paper is focused on the performance of common architectural configurations, typical for residential or business use. The large majority of old masonry buildings is made of fired clay bricks. The seismic performance of these buildings is particularly interesting since major past earthquakes in Italy affected areas with mainly stone masonry structures. Apart from examples showing systematic or peculiar structural deficiencies governing the vulnerability of several buildings, the overall seismic performance of these structures to repeated shaking, with PGA as large as 0.25–0.3 g was rather good, despite the major part of them were only conceived for carrying vertical loads. In fact, seismic design is mandatory in the area only since 2003. Modern low-rise masonry buildings erected after this date and incorporating seismic design and proper detailing resulted in most cases practically undamaged. The examples reported in the paper allow an evaluation of the superior performance of seismically designed modern masonry buildings in comparison to older ones.
- da Porto F., Munari M., Prota A., Modena C. (2013). Analysis and repair of clustered buildings: case study of a block in the historic city centre of L’Aquila (Central Italy). Construction & Building Materials, Elsevier, 38(1):1221-1237; doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.09.108
- This work presents a pilot study of a clustered building in the historic city centre of L’Aquila, Central Italy, damaged by the earthquake of April 6, 2009. This block was identified under an Ordinance issued during the emergency phase, which obliges the owners of interconnected buildings to constitute consortia to repair and/or re-construct their properties. The selected block has the problems and peculiarities of most of the built environment of the historic city centre of L’Aquila, and of many other old city centres. This study was based on historic search, survey and analysis of the structure with regard to proposals for repair and seismic strengthening. In particular, it describes problems encountered in the various levels of survey and damage interpretation and those of modelling and analysis of the structural behaviour of clustered masonry buildings. The proposed method is suitable for application to other clusters with similar characteristics, in L’Aquila and other historic city centres.
- da Porto F., Silva B., Costa C., Modena C. (2012). Macro-scale analysis of damage to churches after earthquake in Abruzzo (Italy) on April 6, 2009. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Taylor & Francis Publishers; 16(6):739-758; doi: 10.1080/13632469.2012.685207
- This article focuses on the effects of the earthquake which struck the Abruzzo region (Central Italy) on April 6, 2009, causing considerable damage to many ancient buildings, particularly churches. During the emergency after the earthquake, many churches and other historical monuments (towers, city walls, large town houses, etc.) were surveyed, according to first-level damage survey forms for Cultural Heritage buildings, by multidisciplinary working groups composed of experts from several Italian institutions (Universities, Ministry for Cultural Heritage, Fire Brigade, etc.). This article presents a statistical study on the information collected by the University of Padova during the surveys, which was later inserted and organized in a database, and illustrates data on damage assessment of the buildings in question. It also presents an intuitive overview of the seismic effects on several churches, allowing not only better understanding of the response of these structures to this particular earthquake, but also correlating data on it with its effects on the churches.
- da Porto F., Stievanin E., Garbin E., Valluzzi M.R. (2012). SRG application for structural strengthening of RC beams. ACI Special Publications, SP- 286, American Concrete Institute, pp. 8.1-8.14, ISBN: 0-87031-765-2
- The paper deals with the application of composite materials named Steel Reinforced Grout (SRG) for strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) elements. They differ from the well-known Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) for the use of small unidirectional steel cords, combined to create a metallic fabric drowned in a matrix of cement mortar. In particular, this work develops an experimental program composed by two consequential phases. The first phase is aimed to find cement mortar matrixes with the best bond properties through pull-off tests in the case of cementitious substrate. The second part deals with flexural tests on RC beams strengthened with two SRG composites. On the basis of pull-off results two inorganic matrixes were selected according to their bonding and impregnation properties. The two SRGs were applied at the bottom of RC beams which were preliminary repaired with polymer-modified mortars in order to simulate a real on-site application of a strengthening layer on degraded RC elements. Flexural test results underline the high potentiality of the SRG strengthening technique also in the case of a double interface, concrete/ repair layer and repair layer/SRG. This technique needs a low level of specialization of workers and it is less expensive than FRP.
- Arosio D., Munda S., Zanzi L., da Porto F., Mosele F., (2012). Non-destructive quality control of reinforced masonry buildings. ASCE Journal of Infrastructure Systems; 18(1):34-46; doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000054
- In the framework of the DISWall research project, funded by the European Commission, the authors have been working on the development of quality-assessment procedures for modern reinforced masonry buildings based on nondestructive testing methods. Two specific types of reinforced masonry systems were considered, both based on concentrated vertical reinforcements and on the use of perforated clay units. This contribution focuses on results obtained by radar and sonic techniques. They were applied in the laboratory on two masonry specimens, which were built with known defects. Tests were also carried out on-site, on real walls of a selected case study. On the basis of the results of these experiments, a fully nondestructive quality-control procedure appears feasible and promising. The data can be collected and analyzed in real time with an automatic classification algorithm. The procedure requires the use of a high-frequency GPR (ground-penetrating radar) system. Depending on the type of masonry system, sonic test equipment might also be required to investigate some specific problems that cannot be diagnosed by the GPR. Feedback from the building sector is now essential to understand the interest in and the potential market for this nondestructive testing application. As a result, new investments could be planned to perform the further testing activities that are needed to standardize the procedure.
- Modena C., Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., Casarin F. (2011). Structural Aspects of The Conservation of Historic Masonry Constructions in Seismic Areas: Remedial Measures and Emergency Actions. International Journal of Architectural Heritage, Vol. 5, Issue 4-5, 2011, ISSN 1558-3058, Taylor and Francis, Philadelphia
- Preservation of historic buildings is a demanding task, especially in seismic zones, where vulnerable constructions can suffer severe damages and losses. The last earthquake that struck the Abruzzo region in Italy in 2009 caused a particularly extensive damage. Lessons learned by previous experiences and the knowledge acquired through researches allowed facing the first emergency period involving universities, civil protection, and the Cultural Heritage Ministry. The result of this collaboration was the survey and the realization of emergency interventions for thousands of buildings in few months after the earthquake, waiting for the definition and design of definitive solutions.
- Binda L., Modena C., Casarin F., Lorenzoni F., Cantini L., Munda S. (2010). Emergency actions and investigations on Cultural Heritage after the l’Aquila earthquake: the case of the Spanish Fortress. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 9, pp. 105-138, ISSN: 1570-761x, DOI: 10.1007/s10518-010-9217-3
- The earthquake occurred on the 6th of April 2009 in the Abruzzo Region of Italy, seriously hit the Cultural Heritage (C.H.) patrimony with major destructive effects on L’Aquila, a city of 70,000 inhabitants with the size and the historical and strategic importance of the Region capital. The emergency activities to protect the C.H. have been developed on two parallel levels: (1) survey and assessment of damages, (2) implementation of temporary safety measures. The organization of the emergency actions was managed by a centralized structure, the so called Function 15 “Protection of Cultural Heritage”, that coordinated the surveys of protected buildings and the design and implementation of temporary safety measures. This allowed the cooperation among different involved subjects (Ministry of Cultural Heritage officers, experts on structural engineering, architects and historians from Universities and private offices and fire brigade teams). The first level of the operating process was carried out on site by expert teams filling up dedicated survey forms for churches and palaces, developed by the Civil Protection Group GLABEC (a Working group for Cultural Heritage); the forms were based on the standardization of damage survey allowing for its immediate interpretation. The second level was based on the past experience in the field of temporary safety measures; the idea was to provide a technical and scientific support in order to assist the work of fire brigade, highly experienced professionals in the “emergency” field. After the first emergency phase the damages of the most important buildings were more carefully investigated and the possible damage progression constantly monitored. The paper presents the case of the Spanish Fortress in L’Aquila, severely damaged by the earthquake; the description concerns the definition of the damages and the interpretation of the activated collapse mechanisms. Finally the design of the provisional strengthening interventions and the on site diagnostic investigations are presented.
- Aoki T., Mazzon N., Valluzzi M.R., Casarin F., Modena C. (2010). Dynamic identification and damage detection of multi-leaf stone masonry building by shaking table test. Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 56B
- Dynamic test and analysis are very important to obtain reliable information relating to actual structural properties of existing multi-leaf stone masonry buildings. For this purpose a series of the shaking table tests of the two-story multi-leaf stone masonry buildings is carried out. This paper consists of two parts. The first part deals with dynamic identification of the two-story multi-leaf stone masonry building and the second part covers its damage detection by numerical model updating.
- Pellegrino C., da Porto F., Modena C. (2009). Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete axially loaded elements with polymer-modified cementicious mortar. Construction and Building Materials, Elsevier, 23(10):3129-3137; ISSN: 0950-0618; doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.06.025
- The aim of the paper is to investigate the compatibility and the efficiency of the rehabilitation intervention on reinforced concrete columns with polymer-modified cementicious mortar. This paper presents the results of experimental tests on axial behaviour of reinforced concrete columns, with square cross-section, repaired by polymer-modified cementicious mortar. Tests were repeated varying repair thickness, which included or did not include the steel reinforcement on one face of the square column. Despite this type of intervention is quite common in practice, the effect of repair thickness on the intervention efficiency, in relation to the existing steel reinforcement configuration, had not been previously studied in detail for axially loaded elements.Results were discussed and compared with those from control columns, which were tested in non-damaged, non-repaired conditions. The main findings of this work can be summarized as follows. The repair cannot restore the load-bearing capacity of non-damaged control columns, although they give acceptable results. Repairs that include the longitudinal reinforcement show good properties, with stable behaviour, sharing of loads, and plasticization of the material before failure, whereas thin repairs that do not include the reinforcement do not have adequate performance due to premature debonding. Non-linear numerical models also confirmed the different behaviour of the two types of repair.
- Casarin F., Modena C. (2008). Seismic assessment of complex historical buildings: application to Reggio Emilia cathedral, Italy. International Journal of Cultural Heritage, Vol. 2, pp. 304-327, Taylor and Francis, Philadelphia
- The definition of structural safety of a historical masonry structure is still a concept that is somewhat difficult to interpret. Whereas dtfor new masonry structures, it is possible to have useful indications about their structural behavior, as the analysis turns to “historical” constructions such a task became increasingly more difficult. Furthermore, the needs of preservation of the historical, cultural, and architectural essence of the building in many cases contrast with the needs of providing the “adequate” capacity to its structure, especially in order to withstand the design seismic loads. The study presented in the article is related to the definition of a knowledge and safety assessment path , concerning masonry religious buildings with a monumental character. A complex building, the Santa Maria Assunta (Our Lady of the Assumption) Cathedral in Reggio Emilia (Italy), is studied in order to evaluate its structural behavior thus defining its seismic vulnerability, by using different investigation and analysis methodologies.
- Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., Modena C. (2004). Behavior and modeling of strengthened three-leaf stone masonry walls. Materials and Structures – Matériaux et Constructions, RILEM Publications; Vol. 37, n. 267, April 2004, pp 184-192, ISSN: 1359-5997
- The application of three different intervention techniques on three-leaf rubble stone masonry walls are discussed here. Injections, repointing, and the placing of ties connecting the two external whytes were considered, both singularly and in combination. Lime-based products were chosen for injection grouts and repair mortars, to ensure better compatibility with the original materials. The experimental tests, performed on seventeen large scale samples under compressive loads, showed that: (i) injections are very effective to improve the mechanical characteristics of the walls; (ii) the other techniques have less influence on the strength but can operate in avoiding ‘brittle’ failure modes (ties placing) and in improving the durability of the masonry (repointing); (iii) the combination of the techniques ensures the enhancement of the global behavior of the walls. The integration of the experimental results with data available in literature allowed the calibration of an analytical model able to predict the compressive strength of injected walls, based on parameters given by simple experimental tests.
- Valluzzi M.R., Bondì A., da Porto F., Franchetti P., Modena C. (2002). Structural investigations and analyses for the conservation of the “Arsenale” of Venice”. Journal of Cultural Heritage, Ed. Elsevier, January-March 2002, Vol. 3, n. 1, pp. 65-71, ISSN: 1296-2074
- Systematic interventions are being planned and progressively designed on most buildings of the Arsenale of Venice, the Venetian republic’s shipyard, a very large complex of docks and sheds of peculiar construction characteristics. These renovation interventions are required in view of new uses for the revitalizing of that area, which is currently almost completely neglected. In the paper, after a general presentation of the main properties and of the most relevant deterioration phenomena of the principal parts of the monumental area, the methodology that is being used for the structural diagnosis, for the implementation of guidelines for the future interventions and for the maintenance of the restored conditions are presented. Some preliminary results, given by experimental tests performed both in situ and in laboratory on materials and structural elements, and by FE simulations, are discussed.
- Modena C., Casarin F., da Porto F., Munari M. (2010). L’Aquila 6th April 2009 earthquake: emergency and post- emergency activities on cultural heritage buildings. M. Garevski, A. Ansal (eds.), Earthquake Engineering in Europe, Geotechnical, Geological, and Earthquake Engineering, Vol 17, Chapter 20, pp. 495-521; DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-9544-2_20, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010
- The earthquake that struck the Abruzzo region on 6th April 2009 at 3:32 a.m., had its epicentre in the capital of the region, L’Aquila, and seriously affected a wide area around the city, where many historic towns and villages are found. Due to the strategic importance of L’Aquila, a strong and organized civil protection action was necessary to face the emergency. In addition, the structural damage on historic buildings and centres was enormous. Therefore, it was necessary to carry out specific actions aimed at the safeguard of this heritage. These can be shortly listed as: set up of the organizational and decisional structure, damage surveys, temporary interventions to provide the minimum safety conditions, set up of a monitoring plan for some important monuments, set up of a methodology to intervene on complex and connected buildings in the historic centres, definition of adequate materials and techniques to intervene on the damaged buildings.
- Prota A., Moroni C., da Porto F., Montella G., Ricci D., Venturi V., Dolce M., Manfredi G., Modena C. (2012). Linee guida per modalità di indagine sulle strutture e sui terreni per i progetti di riparazione, miglioramento e ricostruzione di edifici inagibili. Cap. 2 “Strutture”, pp. 5-38, Doppiavoce Edizioni, Napoli, ISBN: 978-88-89972-30-4
- Il presente documento è disponibile in libero accesso.
- Casarin F., Modena C. (2009). Il monitoraggio strutturale di alcuni monumenti a L’Aquila in seguito ai danni provocati dal sisma dell’aprile 2009. I Beni Culturali (Anno XVII – 2009 – Numero 6), BetaGamma ed. Viterbo
- Modena C., Riva G., Valluzzi M.R., Mar G., Sonda D., Zonta D., Berti M., da Porto F., Franchetti P., Zanardo G. (2001). Caratterizzazione strutturale e consolidamento di costruzioni in muratura. MURST 1998-2000 ‘Il progetto di conservazione: linee metodologiche per le analisi preliminari, l’intervento, il controllo di efficacia’, Rapporti di ricerca, a cura di Serena Pesenti, Alinea Ed., Milano, Italy, Dicembre 2001; pp. 415-457; ISBN 88-8125-537-5
- Roca P., Martínez G., Casarin F., Modena C., Rossi P.P., Rodríguez I., Garay A., (2008). Monitoring of long-term damage in long-span masonry constructions. Learning from failure. Long-term behavior of heavy masonry structures, Great Britain, pp. 125-151
Monitoring is a key activity in the study of ancient structures, providing reliable insight into its present condition and the signifi cance and progress of damage. Monitoring can contribute to identifying and evaluating existing damage and help determine which active physical phenomena are involved in its generation.
However, which monitoring procedures and strategies are to be considered depends highly on the type of processes experienced by the structure.
Four different phenomena – large deformation, tensile damage, compressive damage and largescale fragmentation – are considered and discussed with regard to monitoring possibilities for measuring and characterizing them.
Not only the structural effects (rotations, displacements, crack openings, etc.), but also the actions experienced by the construction (wind, earthquake, thermal cycles, soil settlements, etc.) are to be measured together over a suffi ciently long period comprising several years.
The use of a detailed numerical model may, in most cases, allow accurate physical and quantitative interpretation of the information obtained. 6.2 Monitoring and long-term damage Large deformation and damage are observed in almost all ancient masonry constructions. Structures – and particularly masonry structures – are not fully inert…
- Maierhofer C., Köpp C., Binda L., Zanzi L., Rodríguez Santiago J., Knupfer B., Johansson B., Modena C., da Porto F., Marchisio M., Gravina F., Falci M., Galvez Ruiz J.C., Tomazevic M., Bosiljkov V., Hennen C., Lorente Toledo D.E., Zajc A., Delli Paoli S., Drdácky M., Válek J. (2006). Onsiteformasonry Project. On-site investigation techniques for the structural evaluation of historic masonry buildings. EUR 21696 EN, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Commission, 2006, 141 pp.; ISBN 92-894-9601-0
ONSITEFORMASONRY is a research project supported by the European Commission under the Fifth Framework Programme and contributing to the implementation of the Key Action “The City of Tomorrow and Culture Heritage” within the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development.
ONSITEFORMASONRY will provide improved methodologies for the evaluation of the structure of historic masonry Cultural Heritages.
It will enable owners and end-users of Cultural Heritages to solve structural problems caused by environmental factors and which menace the safety of buildings and citizens. It will meet new factors for increased frequency of inspection.
The approach will be to mature a diagnostic methodology based on Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and Minor-Destructive Testing (MDT) techniques, to develop a positioning sensor for effective data acquisition, to develop software for combined data analysis and reconstruction and to improve existing and to develop new models for structural evaluation and redesign.
The results will be evaluated by performing field tests, and their impact on the assessment of Cultural Heritages will be quantified and disseminated.
- Casarin F. , Modena C., da Porto F., Tecchio G., Kleidi I. (2013). Dynamic Strain Monitoring of a highway steel bridge subject to fatigue damage. 5th Int. Operational Modal Analysis Conference (IOMAC’13), 13-15 May 2013, Guimarães, Portugal
- Girardello P., da Porto F., Modena C., Valluzzi M.R. (2013). Comportamento sperimentale di volte in muratura rinforzate con materiali compositi a matrice inorganica. XV Convegno L’Ingegneria Sismica in Italia –ANIDIS 2013, 30 June – 4 July 2013, Padova
- Girardello P., da Porto F., Dalla Benetta M,, Valluzzi M.R. (2013). Experimental behaviour of masonry vaults strengthened by innovative composite materials. 12th Canadian Masonry Symposium, 2-5 June 2013, Vancouver, Canada
- Girardello P., Pappas A., da Porto F., Valluzzi M.R. (2013). Experimental testing and numerical modelling of masonry vaults. International Conference on Rehabilitation and Restoration of Structures, 13-16 February 2013, Chennai, India
- Modena C., Lagomarsino S., da Porto F., Cattari S. (2012). Earthquake protection of masonry historical constructions: overview of results from NIKER and PERPETUATE European Projects. 8th International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, 15-17 October 2012, Wroclaw, Poland
- Silva B., Pigouni E., Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., Modena C. (2012). Assessment of the effectiveness of grout injection on the consolidation of 3-leaf stone masonry walls through the use of NDT and DT. 8th International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, 15-17 October 2012, Wroclaw, Poland
- Casarin F., Modena C., Bello E., da Porto F., Girardello P., Lorenzoni F., Kleidi I., Menon S. (2012). Health monitoring of the Roman arena of Verona, Italy. 8th International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, 15-17 October 2012, Wroclaw, Poland
- Casarin F. , Humo M. , da Porto F., Kulukcija S., Modena C., Cantini L., Lorenzoni F., Girardello P. (2012). Experimental investigations on two traditional stone masonry minarets in Bosnia and Herzegovina. 8th International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, 15-17 October 2012, Wroclaw, Poland
- Valluzzi M.R., Girardello P., Francescato D., Pospíšil S., Král R., D’Ayala D., Paganoni S., Pelà L., Roca P., Branco J., El Harrouni K., Kucukdogan B., Parisi M.A. (2012). Optimization of design for floors, roofs and vaults. Int. Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Construction, 15-17 October 2012, Wroclaw, Poland, ISSN 0860-2395, ISBN 978-83-7125-216-7
- Dalla Benetta M., da Porto F., Casarin F., Modena C., Valluzzi M.R. (2011). Consolidamento delle murature storiche in pietra colpite dal terremoto de L’Aquila mediante iniezione di miscele consolidanti. XIV Convegno Anidis L’ingegneria Sismica in Italia, 18-12 Settembre 2011, Bari
- Casarin F., Modena C., Aoki T., da Porto F., Lorenzoni F. (2011). Structural Health Monitoring of historical buildings: preventive and post-earthquake controls. 5th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure (SHMII-5), 11-15 December 2011, Cancún, México
- Casarin F., Lorenzoni F., Islami K., Modena C. (2011). Dynamic Identification & Monitoring of the churches of St. Biagio and St. Giuseppe in l’Aquila. 4th International Conference on experimental Vibration Analysis for Civil Engineering Structures, 3-5 October 2011, Varenna, Italy
- Casarin F., da Porto F., Lorenzoni F., Modena C. (2011). SHM for historical buildings: preventive and post-earthquake controls. 4th International Conference on experimental Vibration Analysis for Civil Engineering Structures, 3-5 October 2011, Varenna, Italy
- Casarin F., Dalla Benetta M., Modena C., da Porto F., Valluzzi M.R., Cantini L., Tedeschi C. (2011). Structural monitoring and investigation campaign in the Church of St. Giuseppe dei Minimi in L’Aquila, after the 6th of April 2009 earthquake. International Symposium on Nondestructive Testing of Materials and Structures (NDTMS-2011), 15-18 May 2011, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
- Cantini L., Condoleo P., Munda S., Tedeschi C., Tiraboschi C., Casarin F., Simonato E., Binda L. (2011). Investigation methodology applied to the structure of the Church of St. Biagio in L’Aquila. International Symposium on Nondestructive Testing of Materials and Structures (NDTMS-2011), 15-18 May 2011, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
- da Porto F., Silva B., Lorenzoni F., Girardello P., Valluzzi M.R., Modena C. (2011). New integrated knowledge based approaches to the protection of cultural heritage from earthquake-induced risk. Structural Engineering World Congress (SEWC 2011), 4-6 April 2011, Como, Italy
- Islami K., Tecchio G., da Porto F., Modena C., (2011). Dynamic validation of a masonry arch bridge seismic retrofit. 4th International Conference on Experimental Vibration Analysis for Civil Engineering Structures (EVACES 2011), 3-5 October 2011, Varenna (Lecco), Italy
- Islami K., da Porto F., Dalla Benetta M., Casarin F., Modena C. (2011). Dynamic identification and health monitoring of two concrete arc bridges. 1st Middle East Conference on Smart Monitoring, Assessment and rehabilitation of Civil Structures (SMAR2011), February 10-11, 2011, Dubai, UAE
- Secco M., Stievanin E., da Porto F., Modena C., Artioli G., Mazzoli C. (2011). Non destructive and medium destructive analyses on an early 20th century RC structure: the case study of the Victory Monument in Bolzano. 10th Int. Conference on nondestructive investigations and microanalysis for the diagnostics and conservation of cultural and environmental heritage (ART’11), 13-15 April 2011, Florence, Italy
- Artioli G., Secco M., Mazzoli C., Coletti C., Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., (2010). Characterization of Stone Masonry Panels Consolidated by Injection of Grouts in Buildings Damaged by the 2009 Abruzzo Earthquake. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference (HCM 2010) & RILEM TC 203-RHM ‘Repair mortars for historic masonry’ final workshop, Prague, Czech Republic, 22-24 September 2010, pp. 871-881; RILEM Publication s.a.r.l., Vol 78; ISBN: 978-2-35158-112-4
- Casarin F., Lorenzoni F., Cantini L., Munda S., Binda L., Modena C., Ciabattoni R., Cacace C. (2010). The Spanish Fortress in l’Aquila: emergency actions, investigations and monitoring. Structural Engineers. 4th Structural Engineering World Congress, 4-6 April 2011, Villa Erba, Como, Italy
- Modena C., Lorenzoni F., Munari M., da Porto F., Valluzzi M.R., Casarin F. (2010). Emergency actions for the preservation of Cultural Heritage buildings after the l’Aquila earthquake. International Conference on Disaster Management and Cultural Heritage “Living in Harmony with the Four Elements”, 10-12 December 2010, Thimpuh, Buthan
- Carraro M., Ghedina T., de Sabbata A., Modena C., Casarin F., Dalla Benetta M. (2010). The S. Marco church in L’Aquila: provisional interventions after the 2009 Abruzzo earthquake. 7th International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, 6-8 October 2010, Shanghai, China
- Mazzon N., Chavez Cano M. M., Valluzzi M.R., Casarin F., Modena C. (2010). Shaking table tests on multi-leaf stone masonry structures: analyses of stiffness decay and hysteretic behaviour. 7th International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, 6-8 October 2010, Shanghai, China
- Lorenzoni F., Valluzzi M.R., Modena C., Simonato E., Casarin F. (2010). Settlement induced damage modelling of historical buildings: the bell tower of the “Basilica dei Frari” in Venice. 7th International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, 6-8 October 2010, Shanghai, China
- Casarin F., Modena C., da Porto F. (2010). Structural monitoring of damaged cultural heritage buildings after the april 2009 abruzzo earthquake. 3rd International Workshop on Conservation of Heritage Structures Using FRM and SHM (CSHM-3 2010), 11-13 Aug 2010, Ottawa Canada
- Silva B., Magi J., Casarin F., Modena C., Valluzzi M.R., Condoleo P., Cardani G., Binda L. (2010). Assessment of the san Marco church structural behavior in sequence of the april 2009 earthquake in Abruzzo (Italy). 8th MONUBASIN Symposium, May 31 to June 2, 2010, Patras, Greece
- Casarin F., Modena C., Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F. (2010). Structural monitoring of damaged cultural heritage buildings after the April 2009 Abruzzi earthquake. 3rd Euro Mediterranean Symposium On Advances in Geomaterial and Structures (AGS’10), 10-12 May 2010, Djerba, Tunisia
- Mosele F., da Porto F., Modena C. (2009). Damage identification applied to reinforcedmasonry structures. 7th International Symposium in Non Destructive Testing in CivilEngineering, Nantes, France, 30 June-3 July 2009; pp. 701-706; ISBN 978-2-7208-2542-2
- Arosio D., da Porto F. , Mosele F., Munda S., Zanzi L. (2009). Calibration and on-site application of radar and sonic methods for quality control of reinforced masonries. 7th International Symposium in Non Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering, Nantes, France, 30 June-3 July 2009; pp. 707-712; ISBN 978-2-7208-2542-2
- Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., Mazzon N., Garbin E., Modena C. (2009). Iniettabilità ed efficacia dell’iniezione di miscele consolidanti in murature multistrato di pietra. XIII Convegno Nazionale L’Ingegneria Sismica in Italia (ANIDIS 2009), 28 Giugno – 2 Luglio 2009, Bologna, ISBN 978-88-904292-0-0
- Modena C., Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., Casarin F., Garbin E., Munari M., Mazzon N., Panizza M., Dalla Benetta M., Bettiol G. (2009). Intervention criteria for historic masonry constructions subjected to seismic actions. 13th Conf. on Repair, Conservation and Strengthening of traditionally erected buildings and historic buildings (REMO2009), 2-4 dicembre 2009, Wroclaw, Poland
- Modena C., Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., Casarin F., Garbin E., Munari M., Mazzon N., Panizza M., Dalla Benetta M. (2009). Recent advances in the structural analysis and intervention criteria for historic stone masonry constructions subjected to seismic actions. ISCARSAH Symp. On Assessment and strengthening of historical stone masonry constructions subjected to seismic action, 12 luglio 2009, Mostar, Bosnia Erzegovina
- Modena C., Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., Casarin F., Garbin E., Panizza M, Mazzon N., Munari M, Dalla Benetta M, Bettiol G. (2007). Criteri e tecniche per l’intervento di miglioramento sismico di edifici storici. Atti della Giornata di Studio:”Il dopo terremoto della Val Sabbia e del Garda: fra esigenze di tutela e requisiti di sicurezza”, 24 novembre 2007, Salò (BS). ISBN/ISSN: 978-88-548-XXXX-X
- Valluzzi M.R., Mazzon N., Munari M., Casarin F., Modena C. (2009). Effectiveness of injections evaluated by sonic tests on reduced scale multi-leaf masonry building subjected to seismic actions. 7th International Symposium on Non Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering, June 30th – July 3rd, 2009, Nantes, Francia, Abraham and X. Dérobert, LPC C1502542, p. 677-682, ISBN/ISSN: 978-2-7208-2542-5
- Casarin F., Modena C., Simonato E. (2009). Dynamic identification of the St. Martin bell-tower of Burano, Venice. 3rd International Operational Modal Analysis Conference, 4-6 May 2009, Ancona, Italy
- Modena C., Casarin F., da Porto F., Garbin E., Mazzon N., Munari M., Panizza M., Valluzzi M.R. (2009). Structural Interventions on Historical Masonry Buildings: Review of Eurocode 8 Provisions in the Light of the Italian Experience. Workshop RELUIS – UNI UNI. “Quali Prospettive per l’Eurocodice 8 alla Luce delle Esperienze Italiane”, 3 Aprile 2009, Napoli
- Pellegrino C., da Porto F., Modena C. (2008). Indagine sperimentale su elementi inflessi in c.a. ripristinati con malta. 17esimo Congresso C.T.E., 5-8 Novembre 2008, Roma, pp. 59-68
- Casarin F., Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., Modena C. (2008). Structural monitoring for the evaluation of the dynamic response of historical monuments. RILEM Symposium on On Site Assessment of Concrete, Masonry and Timber Structures (SACoMaTiS 2008), ISBN 978-2-35158-061-5, Publisher RILEM Publications SARL
- Modena C., Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., Casarin F., Munari M., Mazzon N., Panizza M., (2008). Assessment and improvement of the seismic safety of historic constructions: research and applications in italy. I Congreso Iberoamericano Sobre Construcciones Históricas Y Estructuras De Mampostería, 30 Julio – 1 Agosto 2008, Bucaramanga Colombia
- Gaudini G., Modena C., Casarin F., Bettio C., Lucchin F. (2008). Monitoring and strengthening interventions on the stone tomb of Cansignorio della Scala, Verona, Italy. 6th Int. Seminar on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, 2-4 July 2008, Bath, UK
- Casarin F., Modena C. (2007). Application of different modeling procedures for the seismic assessment of Reggio Emilia cathedral, Italy. IX International Conference on Computational Plasticity Fundamentals and Applications (COMPLAS 2007), 5-7 September 2007, Barcelona, Spain
- Casarin F., da Porto F., Valluzzi M.R., Modena C. (2007). Evaluation of the structural behavior of historic masonry buildings by using sonic pulse velocity method. 10th International Conference on Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture (STREMAH 2007), 4-6 July 2007, Prague
- Casarin F., Modena C. (2007). Dynamic identification of S. Maria Assunta Cathedral, Reggio Emilia, Italy. 2nd International Operational Modal Analysis Conference, 30 April – 2 May 2007, Copenhagen
- Modena C., Casarin F., Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F. (2006). Codes of practice for architectural heritage in seismic zones. 5th Int. Conference Structural Analysis of historical constructions, 6-8 November 2006, New Delhi, India, ISBN 1403-93156-9
- Ramos L., Casarin F., Algeri C., Lourenço P., Modena C. (2006). Investigation techniques carried out on the Qutb Minar, New Delhi, India. 5th Int. Seminar on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, 6-8 November 2006, New Delhi, India
- Modena C., Casarin F. (2006). Structural assessment and seismic vulnerability analysis of the Reggio Emilia cathedral, Italy. 5th Int. Seminar on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, 6-8 November 2006, New Delhi, India
- Ramos L., Casarin F., Lourenço P., Modena C. (2006). Dynamic Identification of the Qutb Minar, New Delhi, India. IOMAC Wokshop, 4-5 May 2006, Aalborg, Denmark
- Valluzzi M.R., Casarin F., Modena C. (2006). Structural assessment of the Masting Tower of the Arsenal of Venice. 1st Conference on Restoration of Heritage Masonry Structures, 24-27 April, 2006, Cairo, Egypt
- da Porto F., Casarin F., Garbin E., Grendene M., Modena C., Valluzzi M.R. (2005). Design assisted by testing of semi-prefabricated reinforced brick masonry vaults. 10th Canadian Masonry Symposium, 8-12 June 2005, Banff, Alberta (Awarded with the “R.G. Drysdale Award – For the best paper on masonry research or education”)
- Valluzzi M.R., Casarin F., Garbin E., da Porto F. and Modena C. (2005). Long-term damage on masonry towers, case studies and intervention strategies. 11th International Conference on Fracture, 20-25 March 2005, Turin, Italy
- Lionello A., Cavaggioni I., Rossi P.P., Rossi C., Modena C., Casarin F., Marchi G., Gottardi G., Ragazzini A. (2004). Preliminary investigation and monitoring for the design of a strengthening intervention on the Frari basilica, Venice. 4th Int. Seminar on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, 10-12 November 2004, Padova, Italy
- Lionello A., Cavaggioni I., Modena C., Casarin F., Rossi P.P., Rossi C. (2004). Experimental and numerical analysis of the structural behaviour of St Stefano’s bell-tower in Venice. 4th Int. Seminar on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, 10-12 November 2004, Padova, Italy
- Modena C., Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., Casarin F. , Bettio C. (2004). Structural upgrading of a brick masonry arch bridge at the Lido (Venice). 4th Int. Conference on Arch Bridges (ARCH’04), 17-19 November 2004, Barcelona
- da Porto F., Valluzzi M.R., Modena C. (2003). Performance assessment of different consolidation techniques for multi-leaf stone masonry walls. International Conference on Performance of Construction Materials, 18-20 February 2003, Cairo, Egypt
- Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., Modena C. (2003). Grout requirements for the injection of stone masonry walls. International Conference on Performance of Construction Materials, 18-20 February 2003, Cairo, Egypt
- Valluzzi M.R., da Porto F., Modena C. (2003). Structural investigations and strengthening of the civic tower in Vicenza. Structural faults & repair-2003, Commonwealth Institute, 1st -3rd July 2003, Kensington, London, UK
- da Porto F., Valluzzi M.R., Modena C. (2003). Use of sonic tomography for the diagnosis and the control of intervention in historic masonry buildings. International Symposium Non-destructive testing in Civil Engineering NDT-CE, 16- 19 Sept. 2003, Berlin, Germany
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